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There's nothing that can put an end to a professional pilot's career faster than a positive drug test. Every pilot under an air carrier certificate, regardless of whether its Part 119, 121 or 135 (and Part 65 controllers), all pilots will undergo drug screening. Most Part 91 corporate pilots will also be screened for drugs including sightseeing operations under FAR 91.147. The process usually entails the supervised collection of urine and is governed by FAR part 120.
There are several circumstances which kick off the drug & alcohol testing program. Drug & alcohol tests are conducted for pre-employment screening, reasonable suspicion, random drug & alcohol testing, and post-accident drug and alcohol testing. It even affects the average private pilot as FAR 120.11 states:
Refusal by the holder of a certificate issued under part 61 of this chapter to take a drug or alcohol test required under the provisions of this part is grounds for:
(1) Denial of an application for any certificate, rating, or authorization issued under part 61 of this chapter for a period of up to 1 year after the date of such refusal; and
(2) Suspension or revocation of any certificate, rating, or authorization issued under part 61 of this chapter.
FAR 120.107 defines the substances for which testing must be conducted. It states that: "Each employer shall test each
employee who performs a safety sensitive function for evidence of marijuana, cocaine, opiates, phencyclidine (PCP), and
amphetamines." Safety sensitive function means performing:
FAR 120.111 sets the limits for those performing safety sensitive duties who test positive. In short, it states: