Learn to Fly
7 day IFR Rating
1. Attitude Indicator
a. Point out the similarity of the horizon bar to the
horizon while banking. The instrument gives a direct indication of
(1) Roll from one bank to another and point out the similarity of the
apparent movement of the miniature aircraft and the real aircraft. To
the student's understanding, tell him to imagine himself in the
(2) Point out the banking scale at the top of the instrument. Rolling
from one bank to another, show how the pointer indicates the degree of
(3) If the aircraft is flying right-side-up, the bank indices will
be next to the reference marks on the case of the instrument.
(4) If the aircraft is inverted, the bank indices will be at the bottom
of the case (non-tumbling instrument).
b. Demonstrate the banking limits of the instrument.
c. Precession of the horizon bar. Make a steep turn of
returning to level flight at the completion of the turn, point out that
pitch and bank errors may be as much as 5°.
d. Caging and uncaging (if a caging device is
(1) Cage and uncage in a banked attitude - show error.
(2) Emphasize the importance of uncaging the instrument in level
(3) Stress the importance of fully uncaging the instrument after caging
it, otherwise its limits may be greatly reduced.
e. Cross-check. Point out that while cross-checking the
both pitch and bank should be checked at the same time.
f. Student practice.
(1) Bank control with the attitude indicator alone.
(2) Occasionally place the aircraft in a bank and have the student
level the wings.
(3) Pitch and bank control using all the pitch instruments and the
attitude indicator for bank control.
2. Heading Indicator
a. Banks and turns.
3. Turn Coordinator (miniature
(1) In coordinated flight, turning means banking. The heading indicator
gives an indirect indication of bank.
(2) Roll into a shallow bank. The heading indicator moves slowly in
the direction of the bank.
(3) Increase the bank and point out the corresponding increase in the
rate of turn on the heading indicator.
b. Limits of the heading indicator.
(1) The limits of the heading indicator vary with instrument design.
Until recently, these limits have generally been 55 degrees of pitch
bank. If the limits of the instrument are exceeded, it gives an
(2) Due to precession caused by internal friction, the instrument
be checked at least every 15 minutes during flight and reset to the
heading. An error of 3 degrees in 15 minutes is acceptable for normal
c. Correcting headings.
(1) When correcting a heading, do not exceed in bank the number of
degrees to be turned. For example, if the heading error is 10°, do
not exceed a 10° bank when correcting.
(2) The bank should never exceed that required to produce a standard
rate turn or a maximum of 30°.
d. Cross-check. Include the heading indicator in the cross-check to
maintain straight-and-level flight. When available, the heading
is always primary for bank in straight flight.
e. Student practice.
(1) Maintaining straight flight with the heading indicator alone.
(2) Maintaining straight flight by use of the heading indicator and
the attitude indicator.
(3) Maintaining straight and level flight by the use of all pitch
together with the heading indicator and attitude indicator of the bank
a. When the miniature aircraft is level (proper
trim), it indicates
that the airplane is flying straight with the wings level. Demonstrate
that the roll rate of the miniature aircraft is proportional to the
rate of roll. Also, point out that the miniature aircraft indicates the
airplane's rate of turn when the roll rate is reduced to zero.
4. Rudder and Aileron Trim
b. Roll from one turn to another. The miniature aircraft shows the
roll rate of the airplane.
c. Point out that when the airplane is banked in coordinated flight,
it is also turning. This turn is indicated by the miniature
d. In straight-and-level unaccelerated flight, when the heading
is not available, the magnetic compass is primary for bank, closely
by the miniature aircraft of the turn coordinator.
e. Referring to the attitude indicator, place the airplane in a very
shallow bank (approximately 2°) and point out the position of the
aircraft of the turn coordinator. Point out the corresponding movement
of the heading indicator.
f. Emphasize keeping the miniature aircraft level to maintain straight
a. Emphasize maintaining attitude and trimming off
b. Demonstrate how the need for trim can be determined by a
of instrument indications.
c. Make power changes and have the student maintain
flight, keeping the aircraft properly trimmed.
d. The cross-check for need of trim should be continued
e. Trim technique - partial panel and full panel.
(1) Partial panel - relax control pressures in straight-and-level
If the miniature aircraft of the turn coordinator indicates a turn, but
the ball is centered, aileron trim is needed. If the miniature aircraft
and ball move simultaneously, rudder trim is needed.
(2) Full panel - relax control pressures in straight-and-level flight.
If the heading indicator shows a turn before a bank is shown on the
indicator, rudder trim is needed. If a bank is shown on the attitude
before a turn is shown on the heading indicator, aileron trim is
Refer to the miniature aircraft and ball of the turn coordinator to