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Briefings (Plan) & Callout (Monitor)

Navigation:  Fundamentals of CRM | Resolving Conflict | Workload Management | Checklist Usage | Briefings & Callouts | Training CRM | Threats to Safety | FOTA | Error Management | Integrating Threat & Error Management | What are you doing over there? | New Captain Series

Briefings are an integral part of CRM. They give us awareness and help us to avoid mistakes. Briefing plans what is to be done then allows the pilot to monitor his plan more effectively to recognize when things go wrong.  Setting the stage is important to determine:

  • Who flies
  • Who brief who, and when
  • Standard call outs, who makes them
  • Who does miscellaneous duties and procedures
Departure Briefing - typically performed by the PIC, includes:
  • Aircraft status (preflight, fuel, load manifest, W&B, discrepancies)
  • Assignment of PIC & PF/PM duties
  • Experience level of pilots
  • Inoperative equipment
  • Aircraft status (preflight, fuel, load manifest, W&B, discrepancies)
  • Weather conditions (departure, enroute, destination)
  • Filed flight plan (SIDs, route, STARs)
  • Special passengers,
  • Itinerary, delays, stopovers, etc.
  • Positive Exchange of Controls
  • "Are there any questions?"

Taxi Briefing
  • The general taxi plan for the expected departure runway
  • Threats in the airport environment
  • Runway conditions
  • "Are there any questions?"

Takeoff Briefing includes:

  • Initial heading & course
  • Initial altitude
  • Airspeed limits
  • Review critical “V” speeds
  • Clearance limits
  • RTO Procedures - critical conditions affecting the GO / NO-GO decision.
  • <>
  • Engine Failure & Backup Power Settings
  • Emergency procedure
  • Standard Call outs
  • Unusual situations:
    • Runway conditions
    • Weather
    • Obstacle Clearance
    • SIDs
  • Noise abatement
  • "Are There Any Questions?"

Passenger Briefing
  • Seatbelt Use
  • No Smoking
  • Door Use / Emergency Egress
  • Emergency Equipment
    • Fire extinguisher
    • First Aid Kit
    • Survival Kit
    • Overwater considerations & equipment
    • Cold Weather considerations & equipment
  • Sterile Cockpit
  • Use of Portable Electronic Devices
  • Pointing Out Traffic
  • "Are there any questions?"
Callouts are useful because they assist both pilots in situational awareness, especially when not going as briefed (planned).  Callouts are methods which the pilot monitoring (PM) will prompt the pilot flying (PF) to become aware of various conditions during flight.  Callouts encourage effective flight management and rapid error correction.  Examples are as follows:

Pilot Flying (PF)
Pilot Monitoring (PM)
"Set Takeoff Thrust" Sets takeoff thrust
Responds: "Thrust Set"
Responds: "Checks" "80 knots"

"V1... Rotate"
Responds: "Gear up" "Positive Rate"
Responds: "Gear up"
"After takeoff checks" Performs after takeoff checklist
Responds: "After takeoff check complete"
"Engage autopilot" "Autopilot engaged"
"Climb checklist" Performs climb checklist
Responds: "Climb checklist complete"
"Cruise checklist" Performs cruise checklist
Responds: "Cruise checklist complete"

Rejected Takeoff - either pilot calls "Abort"
Pilot Flying (PF)
Pilot Monitoring (PM)
Thrust levers idle
Apply maximum brakes
Maintain directional control
Bring aircraft to complete stop, verify problem, then perform as necessary
  • secure engine, fuel
  • parking brake
  • evacuate
Call deceleration speeds:
"70 knots"
"40 knots"
Notifies tower

Flight Management
Pilot Flying (PF)
Pilot Monitoring (PM)
Responds: "Correcting" "Airspeed"
"Bank angle"

Responds: "Landing"
"Runway in sight"

Responds: "Checks"
"3000 climbing 4000"
"100 to go"

Pilot Flying (PF)
Pilot Monitoring (PM)

Responds: "Checks"

Responds: "Checks"

"Localizer alive"

"Localizer captured"

Responds: "Checks"

Responds: "Checks"

"Glideslope alive"

"Glideslope captured"

"Gear down, prelanding checks" Puts gear down:
"Gear down"
Performs prelanding checks:
"Prelanding checks complete"
Responds: "Checks" "1000 (agl)"
"500 (agl), 90 knots (approach speed), sink 600 (fpm"
"100 to minimums"
Responds: "Continuing" "Approach lights in sight"
Responds: "Landing" "Minimums, Runway in sight"
Responds: "Go around" "Minimums, No Contact"

Transfer of Controls
Pilot Flying (PF)
Pilot Monitoring (PM)
"Take the controls, 230, 5000, 210 knots"

Responds: "You have the controls"

Responds: "I have the controls, 230, five thousand, 210 knots"

Approach Briefing - completed after both pilots have reviewed the plate.  The following is a minimum of what should be briefed to the non-flying pilot/pilot monitoring. 
  • Aircraft configuration
  • Approach Speed
  • Minimum Safe Altitude
  • FAF Altitude
  • DA or MDA Altitude
  • Field Elevation
  • VDP
  • Missed Approach (heading/altitude/intentions)
  • Abnormals, emergency plan
  • "Are there any questions?"

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